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chichen-itza Mexico facts

                            chichen-itza Mexico facts 

Chichen Itza the ruins of Chichen Itza are located in two Noom in the Mexican state of Yucatan 120 kilometers from the city of Marita the name chichen itza means at the mouth of the well of the Itza this famous archeological site was once one of the largest Mayan cities with a diverse population strong economic power and variety of architectural styles El Castillo or the temple of Kukulkan built
between the 9th and 12th centuries CE E is the most famed structure in Chichen Itza this pyramid temple with 365 steps was used for astronomical and religious purposes

Where is chichen itza

chichen-itza  it's one of the most visited sites in Mexico and and for reasons I'll be explaining it's it's quite a mystery  we are going to be talking about aliens not perhaps the usual conventional pen museum topic but for reasons you'll see it's very important to discuss these matters but not just aliens we also need to talk about dinosaurs what is the connection between chichen itza and the decline and disappearance of the dinosaurs these are two really compelling issues and i promise by the end of this we are gone through and dealt with both of them

Archeology in Chichen itza 

we'll talk about archeology and this very interesting mysterious wonderful beautiful sight of chichen itza it is one of the great tourist attractions not only at Mexico but also of Latin America hundreds of thousands of people visit it and through all those visits through all those tour guides through all those
publications narratives that are developed there's ways of understanding chichen that come from the popular literature and those contains very interesting ideas and sometimes some very real grains of truth but they also contain some distortions and misunderstandings and things which as archeologists
we have to cut through what we're interested in is not the popular narrative about chichen but the
real history the real people and what went on there a thousand years and more ago so a little bit of orientation we know that the my area is down here on the tail end of Mexico and we used many
cases to hearing about this great classic Maya cities of course Tikal and corpang Kiera guar sites where the museum has worked all the way back into the 1930s but of course there's no
Cheech we are disqussing this because chichen is not a great classic Maya city Chichen up in the North doesn't exist on its own it exists within this transitional era between the classic and what comes later initially the terminal classic and then into the post classic and we'll be talking about those things as i go along what's important I think is to situate chichen within not just time but also the geography and the cultural surroundings it's fellow cities that there in the north so there's core bar x belong in the east north of the west whoosh mala my apart now these sites did not coexist sequential to each other in many ways we look first at core bar it's a very ruined site it's a very atmospheric place there are beautiful lakes and wildlife but the site itself is very heavily dilapidated this is the famous novel more pyramid and it's one of the few that you can climb with me safety core bar it comes at the end of the great classic tradition in many ways it's not very typical of the north it'smore typical of the southern lowlands places like tikal or Naranjo or peters

Negros this is the kind of culture that core bar is part of and therefore course it has monumental Stila stretching all the way back into the early classic late classic and up till the very end of the late classic Balaam is probably much less not well-known the site is a lot smaller
korban  it is really core bars really vast but heck Balaam is very concentric Lee positions very tightly spaced and in the last few years has produced some wonderful stucco sculptures really elaborate things now think Balam is it sort of a brief fluorescence this is we know from the inscriptions that this is created as a phenomenon under one and perhaps two rulers the other thing that's interesting about egg Balaam is that we know that the ancient name of thick Balaam was it belong all this time people have known the ruins by the same name and we've now found it in the inscriptions as the place name and that's identity is true of Kaabah as well these are both ancient Meyer names

Architecture of Chichen itza

so we're back to a very  large center and really a very different one in many ways this is typifying or

typifies book style architecture this is very very finely cut stones which are mosaic together with a loose rubble fill behind with these sort of monstrous masks most of them actually represent mountains rather than the rain god shark which is often said about them this is very very typical of cook style which mal was not alone there was a lot of other sites of kaaba house i yealed labna whole community of centers but all in this western cook region finally we have maya plan Maya part is different again as we will see as we go through looking at these various buildings it's modeled after chichen it's really like a little miniature version of chichen the site was excavated back in the 1940s and 50s and the site plan is radically different this is a wall sitting with very dense population insider it clearly belongs to the very late post classic

Spanish Arrival in Chichen itza mexico

lets talk about in the colonial sources and we believe that it was abandoned near either 1441 or 1461 just before the Spanish arrived with century or so before the Spanish arrived so if we're trying to locate your chain in time we have to place it in between these earlier sites of Quebec balaam Mucha mal and what goes on later on at my apartment now the line is dotted because this is the really controversial part understanding.

The chronology of chichen

chronology of chichen is part of the key to understanding the history of the site the people who ruled
there and the cultures they inhabited it what can see is the core bar things end at 800 and this is the beginning of the terminal classic this is when things start to fall apart this is the beginning of the Maya collapse right there between 800 and 900 the terminal classic Balam survives a little bit
longer has monuments going all the way up to almost almost up to 900 but not quite and truly was fluorescently in a sense superseding Hazrat Omar which is caused further to the West didn't really
last that much longer either this is part of the books fluorescence which came about just after the southern Maya cities were collapsing but they're all sort of done and gone before chichen has
really hit its stride my pan comes in and then dominates for much later periods so let's get an orientation of the site itself in the center and this is course just downtown chichen because
the site extends off in all directions we have el castillo we have the Great Pyramid in the center we have this area which is the grand terrace or great terrace and a series of other monumental buildings the great ball court template warriors high priests grave down here and then down in the south of Caracol and on Las monjas nunnery so Castillo gets its name because it was taken over by the Spanish. chichen was the target of the very first successful spanish entrada so in 1532 montejo the younger went right into the middle of Yucatan and tried to establish chichen as his new capital he renamed it Ciudad rial and he put the cannon at the top of the pyramid in fact he'd poked a hole
through one of the walls in order for it to project out and thereafter that's howit got his name of El Castillo the castle so it was of course still standing when the first explorers and visitors came to the site


 in the 19th century you can see how heavily overgrown it is already on the right-hand side this has been cleared so the left-hand side has been cleared of trees this would have been
completely covered in trees at one point so when we now sort of throw ourselves forward saying to the modern era where chichen has become this great mecca really for a certain ideas of May spiritualism sort of a totemic Maya Center we have to keep in mind that when we find the famous snake on the equinox which this shadow is projected down here and is supposed to represent the
Diamonds of the snakes back well we know the snakes were indeed there that's how they were found but the thing to bear in mind is just how ruins that pyramid was so everything about those ballast raids were archeological reconstructions they may or may not have been accurate but they certainly weren't created with the idea of certainly not in the modern era of reflecting and equinox shadow whether they did in ancient times I think it's still a little bit debatable ok so let's have a continue out tour and if she changes frames for anything other than the Great Castillo

Chichen itza Cenote

it's famous for the secretary Sinatra this is the great hole in the earth is the sink hole the as we'll see a little bit later Yucatan is coveted in these things it's to do with weaknesses underground which form collapsed structures which the water actually wears away and the ceiling collapses into what used to be huge caves here I think we don't really get a sense of the scale because these are sort of full size trees up here so it's really quite a large large and very circular structure now we have some ethnic
history you have some descriptions diego de Landa was the great chronicler of the early maya period he's a very ambivalent figure a very problematic figure in many ways but certainly he made some comments and some of the very earliest documentary records of chichen so he says that into this well they have the customer throwing men alive sacrifice to the gods in time of drought you also
threw in a great many other things like precious stones and things which they've prized well this quickly became translated into virgins I think we can see where this is going and indeed there

she goes knowing that land had said that a great many of prized objects were thrown into the Samoan team at the people were very very interested in what my lie beneath the water so beginning in the very early part of the 20th century in the 1901 1903 kind of region people started dredging edward thompson was a leading figure in this project they found a lot of skeletal material they were indeed a
lot of bodies in the cenote it wasn't possible to determine skeletally whether they were virgins or not
however our great many of them were children and it does seem as if rather like practice in central Mexico that children were the victim was given up as items of sacrifice in case the Aztec they would be told that they're going to die and their tears the tears of fear would be what brings the rain so it looks as if the Sonata was used for that kind of thing and as you can see they really got serious a few years later as she went down with a full diving kit to wander around down there trying to pick
things up what they discovered was a lot of precious things gold is virtually unknown in the classic my hero even though it really extends all the way down to South America far far earlier almost there just the tiniest little piece has ever made it up to the Maya area during the classic period however
in the post classic that changes and you get really the vast majority of gold has ever been known for the mire comes out of the cenote so these are little golden masks this is a much finer example it's
actually a face with a mouthpiece and sort of goggles for the eyes this is actually represented on one of the release of chichen you can see the same design here the same feathered serpent up here now these were gold discs but they're very very thin and not only were they thin they were also scrunched up into balls and then thrown in that's why it's very hard to see what's on this one but we using an artist rendering we can see that their scenes of warfare and sacrifice if we just exchange this for
another one there's a series of antagonists and the antagonist are displayed and portrayed in the same ways so the people who are on the on the on the rough end of the deal wear feathers and they look very much like contemporary Meyer the people who are succeeding are the victors here are carrying spear throwers comical or drum major style headdresses sometimes with birds coming down here and they seem sort of we're sort of body suits so it's very different not particularly Maya kind of costume now also in the cenote was love Jade because jade was the meijer gold and what's interesting as these pieces were never thrown in almost none of them a whole they've all been smashed up Jade is incredibly hard and even breaking them up would have been quite a job but all of these pieces had
all these items here had to be reconstructed from little fragments

now one of the things they were throwing in in terms of jade was heirloom pieces that were already very old so this is an item we can trace to a historical person in each yacht now buck he was the King of Piedras Negras way way way to the south and it has some dates on here which are 699 706 this character the King of Kiros Negros was his tomb burial 8 was actually excavated by the museum way back in the day in 1930s and in fact until relatively recently we had his teeth on display but they're not on display Namur the other thing that was emerged from the debt the cenote is feet and feet and he's reportedly sixteen feet of blue color so it was an immense amount of blue had been poured into the cenote over the years the seem to have been one the major ritual activities so moving on in our tour let's have a look at I think the western side of the site

and a great ball port bull court and the tzompantli so the chichen all court is unusual well it's it's more than unusual it's complete Unique it's absolutely enormous chichen has in the region i think a nine
ball courts ten in total it has nine other ball courts and they're all very typical size they're all kind of you know a few dozen meters this is on a scale of magnitude bigger and this has been a reconstruction what it would have looked like with associated ten points of course there are rings in which the ball should pass through but if we see most of the rings in other sites of course they're nice and low and you can imagine getting a ball through them these ones are impossible and out of
that became the whole sort of um the sort of popular narrative idea that it was so hard to score that if someone scored they won the kingdom or had the head cut off or something whatever it was that it was very rare event i think it's its nying inconceivable to get a ball through there and i think this
points to the greater purpose and I'm not the first person to think this that the site that the the structure is not a ball court it's a temple it's a temple in the shape of a ball court that's the way to understand and so when

Carvings at chichen itza

we have all these carvings in these reliefs which run down the sides including of course balls with skulls inside them ball players here with axes and near a kneeling ball player with his head chopped off and snakes sprouting out we're really looking at mythology we're not looking at a how-to guide of dealing with the winners or indeed the losers of a ball game but if we want something grisly and gruesome and shows the darker side of chichén it's very close by because sometimes Lee which is just behind the ball court is a large base for skull rank what you can see are these skulls which have been pierced by snakes and of course we know the structure and the name of course is not even Maya this is a Nahuatl this is a effect word because we have these described for central Mexico specifically Tenochtitlan in the capital of the Aztec empire so we have depictions of these same kinds of structures the same kind of vase covered in skulls and then in recent years even on the skulls themselves you can see that they're all pierced with a stake that goes in this case through through
the side so there is a dark side to chichen there is a militaristic side which this is designed to emphasize now I can't entirely go through his picture Cham without talking about Nepal Zhang he was one of the Great's of mystical characters he comes from this transitional period the 19th century
when you have some really important scholars emerging with some very interesting and long-lasting ideas but

you also get people who are that's a less mainstream paul-jean believed that chichen had been founded by freemasons who had escaped Egypt via Atlantis this was also part of his we had a larger
model that that Palenque had been had been built by Polynesians so we see that you know that the scholarly tradition emerging out of a kind of antiquarian and a much more sort of far-fetched concepts if you're floating around in the 19th century um one of the portions contemporaries was someone a completely different order it's one of his photographs and charnae the Frenchman sharni took some of the very first photographs of my buildings and he also traveled very very extensively he had been to central Mexico he had been through all the coastal regions he'd been to all part of my area and so he brought not perhaps a sort of scholarly background but someone was tremendous visual experience and so when the Chuck Maul this reclining figure which we'd seen in the previous
back in the Porsche ons photograph

he knew where he'd seen these things before he'd seen them a long way away in central Mexico this is from the site of Tula which is going to feature quite
heavily now so charlet and after him a series of scholars tazza of Thompson Morley he began this whole tradition of comparing chichen with Tula Tula is to the north west of Mexico City it's not a huge site but the important thing for our purposes is how much it resembles chichen sharm a separated two channel into two parts there was the start of the park which was clearly influenced by the book so this is the same kind of style we found at a Porsche Mar this is part of the Mon house complex and here's the the church the iglesia this belongs to a southern portion of the site this is the caracal this is an observatory we think it has these concentric viewing points which are believed to line up with various stars it could also be a wind temple and talk about the ways in which wind flows
through these apertures it's very typical wind temples of they're circular in central Mexico okay so that old chichen is down in the south and the rest of the site he dubbed new teacher you chichen has the chuck mores it has the figures where was believed that heart sacrifices took place just there he has the feathered serpents and it has a very distinct very monumental style of architecture with lots and lots of these columns lots of serpents everywhere this is part of the this is temple of warriors going
through into the group the thousand columns and we switch now to Tula you can see how similar it is again is the colonnades of columns in front and the platform behind now there's some controversy to this because parts of Tula will reconstructed with this analogy already in mind so we have to take some of this some of what we see here the grain of salt but the similarity is nonetheless up are blinding the central figures at Tula are warriors and they wear those drum major headdresses they have these butterfly motifs on their chest and they carry spear throws at chichen we find identical characters again the same butterfly pectoral and carrying spear throwers again this is reflected time
time again this is Atlantean figures these are thrown supports originally they all sorry originally they were colored when they've when the first what color has arrived at chichen you could just about see the color which is now disappeared and then we switch to tula we find almost the same objects so the
intriguing thing is just the distance between to learn chichen these are a long way away over a thousand kilometers and in between there's really very little in terms of a widespread phenomenon of this particular style and it is generally referred to as Toltecnow the Toltec are referred to in the sources of central mexico has been great warriors the Aztecs saw themselves as being descended from the Toltecs and they were presumably with the inheritors of the power of t to work on which had
collapsed by that time the end of the classic so the Toltec are turn more classic and into the early post classic

the problem is that the old tula itself beyond some of these references beyond things have come through aztec sources we have very little tangible data what and the Toltec were really all about a lot of the time we interpret tulip by means of chichén and this adds a kind of circularity which means that both of them become more confused now in terms of ethnographic sources we do have Maya sources and they come in the form of the Chilam Balam documents these are groups of collections of prophecies and myths as well as it was much more mundane matters which were constantly being collected and recopied so the copies that we're seeing probably 18th century in date but the information within them is much much earlier and it refers to the Maya calendar and all sorts of interesting ways but they're very cryptic they're very their language is very complex and difficult to
decipher so if these documents that we find the early historical references to chichen itza but unfortunately they're not fixed in time they're attributed to what are called cartoons now anyone who
came to be belaboured by my talk about 2012 might have remembered cartoons or 20-year periods and what happens is that they cycle and depending on the number they will rotate through a set of 13
which ends comes together to 256 years now after 256 years the cycle then repeats itself so when they say that something happened in cartoons 6 a how it could have been at any one of those points all those six cycles going back in time well anyway it tells us that chichen itza was founded in 6 a how that it was abandoned in a - how they did for how it was occupied by the ETS are now the eats are featuring a number of other documents and they're treated as being Mexicans they're specified as coming from Mexico they're said to be our warriors we occupied and took over the Yucatan
Peninsula it then talks we think later on about a conquest of chichen itza by another character who may or may not be associated with my apart as soon as of names are connected to these events but
in reality it's very very hard to untangle it all it's irresistible to use this information but we have to be very cautious about how we do that what the sources doom mention is the arrival of Quetzalcoatl which in Maya was cook or calm now Quetzalcoatl was the great emerging gods complex any ology in central Mexico

Quetzalcoatl had at one time been amongst a series of other gods in the same sort of strata but his identity became subdued subsumed into historical character and any one time it's very hard to tell whether they're talking about the God Quetzalcoatl or they're talking about a human Quetzalcoatl but
the sources in Mexico say that Quetzalcoatl was had to leave he was ejected and he went to the east the sources nuketown say that Kukulcan came from the west and ruled at chichen itza these are all little fragments of information that we're trying to pull together so this is just a little bit of the evidence that of this feathered serpent which is what Quetzalcoatl means was already a very very major part of the iconography of central Mexico this is such a calcio site which is in some ways influenced by Maya architecture and dates the classic period but equally of course the Aztec had lots of others plumed serpent Quetzalcoatl so the central El Castillo temple was described as being the building the the temple to Kapil Khan and of course the serpent who haven't seen them here but
the serpents running out of those Palisades and some of the iconography at the top support the idea that the plumed serpent was being celebrated in this building so we might hope that the inscriptions of chichen might illuminate some of this they might help to let us know who the eats are were tell us about Coco car tell us about all these interesting events that took place both we know archaeologically iconographically and ethno historically but unfortunately they do almost none of
that the inscriptions at Chichen are not not few in number they're quite numerous but their preservation is poor on the whole and even when when it's not poor their content their phrasing the ways that

they use their signs is very very difficult to read so those of us who work in earlier periods and work in the southern lowlands you can have a pretty good handle on most inscriptions that might come out of the ground but a chichen we're presented by text that we can barely read at all they use a different kind of chronological system and that can be very hard to read and just extracting people events the whole narrative of Chichen inscription seems to be different so this is Stila one we don't even have a proper date we can't reconstruct the date um some are as I say well-preserved and they supply
certain names some of which we can read some of which we cannot here is something just or kokum and kokum is an interesting name because that becomes a pattern in it comes rulers name at my apartment possibly connected possibly not there are certain relationships between these characters
and we can assemble family trees to some extent we can project who we think the rulers using titles that we don't really see anywhere else but I think a lot of that information is is really struggling
is really grasping at things which we can't pin down so I think much as I've loved there to be a great epigraphic solution to this mystery there's almost nothing there what we can say is a few little fragments this is the Casa Colorado this is the the Red House and inside it has a carved thought Jam and that is the inscription it's very well preserved one by chichen standards it talks about a series of ritual events interestingly it has some vernacular Yucatec Yucatec is the language of the northern lowlands and yet one with all inscriptions even the ones in the north are written in a different language they're written in cholan they come is the prestige language of rulership from the south but here there are some verbal structures and some indications that you could take it being spoken and is sort of filtering into the writing system now there's a what we call a collocation there's a sign group which is common not just in that text but in a number of other places as well and we can break that down quite easily into syllables our Park Carla and that makes a very legible name I've got back our fire is his shield this was the first Maya name to actually be successfully deciphered David Kelley in 1968 published this decipherment perman it predates that Paco who's buried at Palenque and she
led to that decipher so what's interesting is that we turn back - those Chilam Balam documents they talk about a powerful captain of the Itza and they do so just here and just about see it it's caca Baca so these may not be the same person this may be very very different repeating names with it's when you see things like this you can't automatically assumes the same historical person but clearly there is a continuity there this is not a common name and it's something that's obviously quite embedded at chichen so what I've portrayed up until now is the sort of the grand narrative the old chichen the new chichen the maya are taken over by the itza the it's our Mexican invaders there's been a collapse
everywhere else and they arrive they take over chichen they build all these great monuments and they rule from there and i would say up until the 1980s this was the complete received wisdom but beginning in the 1980s people began to change their minds and one of the first steps in that was real proper dirt archeology with ceramic analysis now i'm not illustrating any sherds here because it doesn't really tell the rest of us too much about that kind of stuff but there are two types of fancy high status elite where at chichen and one is called cap edge and the other one is called saputo and they had always been seen as sequential capatch belongs to the maya the the fluorescent mayer and so Tudor belongs to the invaders but when people began to dig into certain context they discovered that there was a mixture that the although serves as broken parts have reflected both types together and this led to a radical idea the idea was that there's a total overlap that these are not chronologically distinct they are actually little cultural two groups of people or two people identifying with two different ideas who are living side-by-side this merged with ideas that became very popular the
1980's the 1990s about the way in which architecture is not a code for people's cultural affiliation it might actually be a choice if we go to Washington DC we do not believe that we've been thrown
back into the Egyptian past neither do we think we're part of the Roman Republic we're very use the idea that within our society we reuse architectural styles we actually put them to new purposes we
take religious iconography we take secular iconography and we merge them together in all sorts of complex ways which are very hard to predict this can even extend to transport system DC metro
so in the 80s and 90s it became much more popular to see the old model is wrong that there was no sufficient basis to prove it that the ceramics have been mixed together and what if the whole style of chichén was not in fact introduced by invaders

it was willingly adopted by the maya and in fact when you look at the construction techniques between the old chichen the new chichen they're the same there's really very little doubt that new chichen was built by the Maya so when I was first getting involved in this in 1990s I was reading
the sort of the new ideas and telling people who maybe gone to chichen on holiday that no no no there's no such thing as new chichen all teaching and new chichen are the same they've just adopted an international style and it's part of the ideology of Quetzalcoatl which they have taken yes from Mexico but it's the Maya who are doing this now the chink in that particular picture really came from this building this is the high priest grave it's a sort of small version of the Castillo pyramid and up there at the top crumbles and fallen were a series of columns which were carved and here this has a relief sculptures it has the plumed serpent balustrade this is a mount new chichen and the figure is rather destroyed but this is a standing figure here it's actually seems to be a captive because he's got ropes around here this is pure new chichen toltec international style and it has a text you can see what bad condition it's in but with a lot of work then that inscription comes out of itand there's no a picker for today who has any question mark about that chronology and those dates why is that important well because cocklebur car was king of chichen was the Lord chichen up until about 890 and then everything goes quiet so for pretty much a century we find no inscriptions or no surviving inscriptions at chichen and then all of a sudden associated with pure Toltec international style we have the high priests grave and affirmed eight four nine nine eight so at last we have separation again we can pull apart new chichen an old teacher and this is combined with a reworking the archeology
a new generation archaeologists going back into the site many many people have worked there but there's been very little hard say c14 evidence to really be able to date these particular buildings and also to look at the chronology of the ceramics when the old chichen buildings were penetrated
excavated and they look for ceramic sherds there's no stitute err that's no surprise there's no Kitsch
because in fact those buildings predate both of those styles it's back into another phase so capatch and so Tudor are both later than all chichen but when you really can control those contexts you find that there is a separation those mixed contexts are where people have reused fill thrown things together
and mix things up capatch Institute are not completely overlapping these are excavations which show that the grand terrace where the Castillo stands is actually man-made it's not just level piece of bedrock it actually is composed of earlier platforms that have been filled to form a nice flat layer so two recent archaeologists are Volta and Braswell have been re looking at the carbon-14 data and they've been doing so with what's called Bayesian statistics Bayesian statistics that are not particularly complicated what it says is that if you have a wood sample say a lintel that used to be support the roof or maybe a piece of wood which comes from a ritual offering that's been burned and buried if you can see the wood grain then you know that the ones on the outer side closer to the bark are going to be new wood and those closer to the core going to be old wood if you take a series of samples throughout that there's the section of the wood then you have already have a piece of data as to which is early on which is later and this helps to constrain that the the always erratic nature of how how wide apart a certain c14 result might be the end result is you get more accuracy and here a series of early Maya style the old chichen buildings have been calibrated to show these kind of ranges
whereas the terrace which is being filled up in time preparation for new chichén and finding Castillo all fit where we expect them to in other words in sequence to each other so these are not completely contemporary they are actually one happening after the other and happening in the same kind
of date ranges that the monuments were suggesting for cocklebur car around here and the high priests grave range up there in around 1,000 so we can now we had the vision charnae had the vision of Tula and chichen and old old chichen and new chichen and then we had revision we had the birth of the International style where people were making choices they weren't being invaded and I think we're
moving quite rapidly back to the old model sometimes it really is as if it looked like a duck it really is a duck we have a break which is very close to the general meltdown of classic Maya civilization coming just shortly before nine hundred and then a period we don't

know how long where all of a sudden Chichen becomes galvanized and changed so were the eats our invaders were they people who came to the central potato to the Yucatan Peninsula or is that a
fiction that scholars have told ourselves we're still trying to fit these pieces together but I think the de
facto idea that that's not possible I think is wrong and I don't think it can be supported the reason for that is that we already have or we now have a good precedent we know that there was influence between Telecom and the central patent in this case Tikal but not just t-carr which happened much
earlier yeah in the round late 300s 400s there's still a very active debate about what that relationship
Teta work on a massive Imperial Center its judgmental call but I'll make it and some iconography this is a piece from Tikal showing t to work on style warriors heading but building over here which is much more in Meyer style the murals in some of the temples that chichen show tremendous amounts of warfare they are part of a whole narrative of conflict and attack and potentially invasion it's not inconceivable the same things happen so when we talk about aliens i think it is an alien city people go to chichen today for Maya experience to see Maya architecture and see the gods the Maya worship what they see is the Castillo it's not a Maya building they see Quetzalcoatl it's not a Mayan god and in
a sense they have seen something very atmospheric and very wonderful not something which is particularly historical to Maya culture and civilization oh yes what about the dinosaurs well surprisingly enough there is a connection we know that we think we know that a comment or asteroid hit what is now the Yucatan Peninsula and in fact you can see here on this map I've been showing this feature which is not a normal geological artifact this is a dude gravity anomalous and this is how
is reveal that what is called the Chicxulub crater live underneath the Yucatan this is the crater which it
seems the majority opinion it lines up 65 million year extinction of the desired dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period if we look at the cenotes they may form a very distinct pattern they are influenced by the crater because the shockwaves which lie deep under the ground and our crystallize in the limestone have created those faults creative as weaknesses which open up into cenotesand so by only a very small stretch of the imagination the location of chichen is determined by the same phenomenon brings the end to the dinosaurs with that I think I've been finished and thank you very much for your attention

7 amazing facts of christ the redeemer brazil which you not know

7 amazing facts of christ the redeemer brazil which you not know


Christ the Redeemer is a stage in Rio de Janeiro Brazil that was built as a symbol of Brazilian Christianity Christ


Christ the Redeemer is the largest Art Deco statue in the world it is 98 feet tall twenty-nine point two meters not saluting the pedestal in thearm stretched to 92 feet 28 meters wide


This statue weighs approximately 635 tones


Christ the Redeemer is located in to Utah Forest National Forest at the top of the Corcovado mountain 


This statue is considered an icon of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil this stones that were used to build rise the Redeemer came from Sweden


This statue was that we ended 1931 it's officially open on October 12 1931 


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How CIA and ISI works together a real story by American about Undercover operations by pakistan

How CIA and ISI works together a real story by American about Undercover operations by pakistan

in the back
 streets of Pakistan the CIA is tracking a target everybody was expecting another attack as bigger maybe even bigger 14 strike teams hunting for one man you got taken out to disrupt him in today' global conflict the stakes couldn't be higher how do we recruit allies and how do we engage and kill the enemy on assignment for the CIA it is a war when you have a political entity like al Qaeda and their allies seeking to attack us in the homeland yet again that's not a criminal enterprise that's not just a law enforcement issue it is war September 11th changed everything for the CIA it changed the way we look at threats around the world instead of being reactive we became proactive once 9/11 happened simply collecting intelligence on the problem wasn't sufficient we had to do something about it we had a mandate from the White House to pro actively go out and target terrorist groups disrupt future attacks and neutralize those groups and so that's what we set out to do after September 11th beginning with
al Qaeda 
The Central Intelligence Agency identifies threats to American national security by collecting information around the world born out of the Cold War and the struggle against communist Nations the CIA now faces a radically different challenge fighting terrorism facing enemies without a country or regard for human life the job of the CIA officer has never been more important or
difficult outside a remote town in eastern Pakistan travelers board a bus for the nearby city of Multan for one of them the journey is about to take a dark turn heavily um commandos wielding ak-47s blocked the road and board the bus this strike team from Pakistan's ISI the inter-service Intelligence Agency has just pulled the trigger on an Intel operation with global consequences shock waves from the raid are about to light up terror networks and intelligence ease around the world over 7,000 miles away at CIA headquarters or Langley an Operations update is added to the Intel agency's most important publication the PDB the president's Daily Brief perhaps the most exclusive and extensively researched daily paper in the world every morning the Director of National Intelligence personally delivers the president's Daily Brief to the White House these are the nation's most sensitive secrets that people have put their lives at risk to acquire for him and so they're very carefully guarded the objective is to provide the president the best intelligence possible on this day news of the bus raid in Pakistan would have been time critical information for the president the Pakistanis were working closely with the CIA and British intelligence Western Intel had identified the man they captured as the key link in a global terror plot for two months British domestic intelligence mi5 had been attempting to crack a small sell of Islamic extremists inside the UK CIA reports had picked up rumors of a plot to kill hundreds of travelers by destroying US airliners through intercepted communications and monitored transactions the agency pieced together the plan jihadists were perfecting a new type of liquid based bomb disguised as everyday items bomb components were to be smuggled through security and assembled aboard American planes it's not that liquid explosives were so new but it was how they developed it it was their ability to break it down to component pieces to understand otherwise innocuous appearing items could be constructed in a way to make an explosive device that's what made it so threatening but the trail of information was still missing critical pieces the CIA didn't know how many cells were involved what flights were targeted or most important how soon the terrorists might launch the attack the issue of timing is is an absolutely critical one the default position if you will for an intelligence officer is to wait as long as you reasonably can't because you want to get as much information as you possibly can as you're surveilling and tracking an individual you want to identify as many members of the network as you possibly can before you take action before busting the bomb cell the CIA wanted one more piece of the puzzle to track the trail back to al-qaeda British Intel had uncovered a possible link between extremists in England and the Middle East money resources and
instructions all seemed to funnel through Pakistan transmitted by a British Muslim named Rashid Rauf Rachid Ralph is a critical node because of his access just to higher level leadership in Pakistan and his ability to transmit the operational direction to the cell for the agency taking down Rashid Rauf serve two objectives to get details about the plot and to cut the link between the British cell and the terror network you got to take him out to disrupt it because once you take him out you have broken or severely weakened the link between the operational commanders at headquarters in Pakistan and the operational cell who's actually going to do the execution of the attack unlike the bomb makers who worked in isolation middlemen like Ralph need to interact with the world outside whether handing off forged passports money or supplies these men the brokers of terrorism operate in the open that makes them a prime target for the CIA Rasheed Ralph he's got both leadership access and technical knowledge he's criticall the CIA's Pakistani partners the ISI tract Ralph to the eastern city of bahawa pour their orders were to observe him

on August 9th 2006 Ralph boarded a bus heading for the northeast of Pakistan the commandos had to act to take down Ralph before he slipped away to safer ground 3,800 miles away rouse capture echoed in the streets of London British police and mi5 raced to round up the bomb makers before they could flee or launch an attack if you ever needed an example of why you need your foreign partners to be successful the case of the Heathrow liquid bomb plot is the absolute example Rashid Ralph's capture was essential to taking out the liquid bomb threat no the CIA wanted to learn what he knew about other plots but Ralph was in Pakistani custody his questioning and detention were in pakistani hands as a terrorist middleman Ralph would be a fount of valuable Intel but in December 2007 his Pakistani captors allowed him to enter a mosque for prayers alone when his guards returned Ralph had vanished the cia's prize prisoner had been wasted it wouldn't happen here in the United States given his importance to the investigation there was a great deal of disappointment and really real disappointment in anguish here in the United States among intelligence officials about it Pakistani courts dropped all terrorism charges against Rashid Ralph but the CIA kept him on their radar in fall of 2008 the agency picked up his trail once again while tracking a top al-qaeda explosives expert CIA officers caught wind of a planned meeting of extremists among those on the guest list Rashid Ralph the conference unfolded in the lawless Pakistani frontier to shut it down the agency turned to its newest and most versatile tool a UAV an unmanned aircraft the predator can even monitor electronic communications as the drone locked in on the meeting site what it saw and heard was relayed to the u.s. from remote aircraft control in the Nevada desert to CIA headquarters in Virginia the presence of top al Qaeda targets confirmed the CIA drone unleashed three Hellfire missiles although his body has never been positively identified the CIA has reason to believe the dead include Rashid Ralph's still rumors that he survived persist to this day al Qaeda middlemen like Ralph's distribute valuable information and resources throughout terrorist networks for the CIA targeting these brokers of death first became a prime strategy in the days after September 11 2001 just weeks after the World Trade Center attack the CIA had infiltrated deep inside Afghanistan their orders stamp out al-qaeda although operations in Afghanistan saw success the CIA's prime target escaped Osama bin Laden and his inner circle vanished into the mountains on the border with Pakistan with bin Laden and hiding deep underground the CIA needed to find another way to cripple al-qaeda they needed to capture a vulnerable link that could lead them to the heart of the network they needed to find osama's middleman CIA led operations in Afghanistan in the days after September 11th routed the Taliban and forced Osama bin Laden to seek a new home base al-qaeda's inner circle slipped across the border looking for refuge in Pakistan's wild western tribal regions it became obvious that there were significant numbers of foreign fighters that were trying to establish sanctuary for themselves in those tribal areas on the Pakistani side of the pack Afghan border remote and mountainous the tribal areas exist beyond the rule of law even the Pakistani government has virtually no power here the region is tailor-made for harboring terrorists no question that there's an ongoing conflict there that al-qaeda has sought to use that area as a virtual safe haven for their planning activities for their training activities and that's why you see so much concern with what's going on there many of those provinces are essentially in no-man's land for official Pakistanis
the Pakistani services don't want to go there they're afraid the Pakistani military is afraid to go there Pakistanis need a tribal visa just to go into those territories inside their own country if the Pakistanis can't get in there very easily it's incredibly difficult near impossible for Americans to go in there trying to infiltrate this isolated and secretive land could be suicide for an outsider CIA officer is trained to go undercover but the agency was set up for a different game to insert contacts not in close-knit clans but inside foreign national operations the CIA simply wasn't wired for this sort of enemy if you think about intelligence collection say in a Cold War period where you know that the issue was to know what were the plans and intentions of senior leaders in the Kremlin well that's a very linear process that was a completely different situation the terrain really shifted in November of 1989 when the Berlin Wall fell and the Cold War ended that's when the change began we got to the point where we knew the Soviet Union we were comfortable with the Soviet Union they understood us and our capabilities it's a different world now crime is transnational human trafficking against transnational drugs are transnational and terrorism is
transnational it's not nation state or nation state army or army it's a network of non-state actors operating on a global battlefield with great secrecy great stealth and they bring unprecedented death and destruction to us and to our interest we have slain a dragon meaning the Soviet Union now we find ourselves in the jungle surrounded by poisonous snakes some ways the dragon was easier to keep track of although the agency's focus may have shifted for the Intel officer the challenge remains the same the job of the CIA operations officer is to recruit spies to steal secrets it's very simple the popular perception is that someone is tall is good-looking can drive a car fast there may be examples of that but if you look at some of the best intelligence officers they are in fact nondescript they are humble for an undercover officer getting access to vital information is the hard part patiently building the relationships with inside sources can take years and only a small percentage of their mission is covert action oriented that's what you hear about mostly because that's what makes the headlines in some cases that the techniques the tactics we'll have to use may revert to many of the things that intelligence or espionage has used throughout the centuries an undercover foreign agent who needs to pass sensitive information to a CIA contact they need nothing more than a simple piece of chalk by leaving a mark in a certain place he alerts his contact that he has material to share a dead drop has been arranged it's the same thing that that the Soviets did all through the 30s 40s 50s you know into the 90s we've done it all those decades as well and the reason that that everybody uses that technique is that it's very simple it doesn't cost any money and it works in winter of 2002 the CIA was eager for a solid source that could open a window into the lion's den of Pakistan's tribal regions and lead to Osama bin Laden's bin Laden's terrorist network was built to operate underground Osama and his deputy Ayman al-zawahiri al-qaeda's number one and number two men have virtually no contact with the outside world they issued decrees in secret and final commands through a handful of trusted middlemen these men Al Qaeda's number three's cannot operate in total secrecy their job recruiting new members distributing money arranging travel implementing bin Laden's commands demands interaction with outsiders the number three is that critical node because somebody's got to have access both to the leadership and to those who are going to execute the attack and so the number three because he communicates with the outside world that's his vulnerability striking that these exposed middlemen became a CIA strategy to undermine al-qaida operations in the winter of 2002 the agency made these terror brokers priority targets including one man they believed had access to the very top of bin Laden's Network a Saudi born Palestinian named Abu Zubaydah it became quite apparent to us that Abu Zubaydah  was a key individual somebody was able to move people money explosives things false passports kind of a guy that you you would have to have if you were going to move operatives and equipment and materiel across borders to mount terrorist operations Abu Zubaydah was the logistics chief for al-qaeda he was the guy who made sure that the September 11th hijackers had money wired into their accounts he made sure they paid their flight school tuition on time he made sure they paid their rent on time made sure that they had their visas to get into the United States he was the detail guy the guy that made sure that everything ran smoothly for the hijackers zoo betas name has cropped up repeatedly in the CIA's top secret presidential briefs one month before September 11th the brief aidid Zubaydah as a linchpin in the Millennium plot al-qaeda's planned attack on sites that included Los Angeles Airport the brief also reported that in 1998 Abu Zubaydah was planning his own us attack so he became an extremely important individual and we had information we had intelligence that came to us sporadically over time indicating that he was traveling back and forth through Pakistan into and then out of Afghanistan again so I spent a lot of time I and my people trying to track down Abu Zubaydah as a top al-qaeda operative zubeida might be anywhere from Africa to the Philippines then a tip from a classified source narrowed the search we got a report that Abu Zubaydah was somewhere in Pakistan but it was impossible to really pin him down they said find him and capture him and you have to take him alive but Pakistan is the size of Texas so it's easy to say there's a guy in Pakistan go catch him it's an entirely different matter to actually go out and do that it's very difficult with the specter of another attack looming over the United States the CIA prepared to launch a high-stakes manhunt Abu Zubaydah perhaps one of bin Laden's top terror brokers was somewhere inside
Pakistan the agency's job now to find one face in a sea of millions March 2002 somewhere in Pakistan one of Osama bin Laden's lieutenants is building a new network of Islamic extremists his name
Abu Zubaydah unlike his master in Laden who must remain hidden from the world sube des role as an al-qaeda middleman requires him to travel and interact with people outside the terrorists underground the CIA believed his contacts to the terror network span people and operations from top to bottom
with bin Laden off the radar the agency needed to learn what Zubaydah knew remember this is just after 9/11 everybody was expecting that the next shoe to drop yeah we thought that there might be another attack as big or maybe even bigger there was a tremendous fear that was driving this whole effort by God we can't allow another one of these to happen initially we had nothing to go on other
than he's in Pakistan go catch him veteran CIA officer John Kerry aku stationed in Pakistan since 1998 took on the job of leading a nationwide manhunt for zubeida a tall order for a nation of a hundred and fifty million in order to capture somebody like Abu Zubaydah though you really need for there to be a perfect storm of intelligence you need an element of luck may be a good walk in somebody who just
walks in off the street and says I've got some information I don't know what it means but if you give me ten dollars I'll let you have it which happens and in many cases is the best ten dollars you've ever spent
a break in the case came from a tip a source and detention claimed that zubeida often passed throughthe
northern city of faisal abroad but before the agency could cast a dragnet over this metropolis of five million people they needed a clearer picture of their quarry literally the actual photographs that we had were some years old and we were concerned that his parents might have changed and so we had
specialists take a look at those photographs if I was a beta and and make changes to them you know what would he look like if he had a full beard for instance what we look like if he shaved his head Kiriakou knew that capturing zubeida would take more than an anonymous tip and an old photo he needed to build an Operations base in Faisal Abad the first thing we needed was money and so headquarters generously gave us everything we asked we hired a real estate agent and he took us to see this house it was quite expensive quite large and I asked him a price he quoted me a price and I said
I'll take it he was so surprised he said do you mind if I ask you what do you do for a living and I just looked at the guy because I hadn't come up with anything and my friend said we're textile Barons and I said yes yes we're textile Barons and he the realtor said oh yes he said that wonderful. 

wonderful welcome to Pakistan next job setting up an Intel shop from scratch this is the information age and terrorists like virtually anybody else are able to take full advantage of modern technology people are using phones they're using the Internet their use of that technology carries with it certain vulnerabilities the search for zubeida would exploit the terror network's own cell phones the CIA cannot divulge details but advanced monitoring systems enabled the agency to intercept thousands of calls a
day this river of data was fed through translators analysts voice recognition and GPS software you combine one cell phone or the information from one cell phone with information from others and
then the map really begins to bring great detail and granularity and then once you have these reference points you can start building a map of relationships with raw intelligence flooding his
makeshift Intel shop kiri aku called in one of the CIA's top analysts a targeting officer to focus the manhunt we flew out this analyst and he immediately started going over the information and what he did was he he laid a large piece of butcher block paper on the floor almost the size of a small billboard and just started writing down addresses as the team plugged in information associations unfolded people
and places the connections that might lead to Abu Zubaydah well we started off with hundreds of possible sites and when I say sites I mean places that we thought al-qaeda fighters could be hiding so once we were able to get it down to several dozen we decided to just drive around and see what it is we were really looking at now some of those places we discounted immediately there were literally I think
was 14 different locations in Faisal Abad that were being used by extremists who we knew were linked with debate it was most likely that he was moving around not staying in one place at any one time well we had never hit 14 places in one night before the most we had ever done was to and so I went to my boss at the time Bob Grenier and I said we just can't tighten it below 14 he said what do you need and I said we need manpower the CIA would have to raid all 14 locations at precisely the same moment should they fail to find sub ADA news of the citywide strike could send their target underground for months the team
would get only one chance the targeting officer asked me what I was thinking and I remember saying I think in 12 hours we're either gonna be heroes or our careers are going to be over one or the

in an unmarked house somewhere in FaisalAbad Pakistan a team of CIA officers locked down plans for the largest agency LED raid ever attempted their target Abu Zubaydah identified by the CIA as a
critical link between Al Qaeda's top leaders and the terror network their orders find him in capture him alive if possible fusing human Intel and electronic surveillance with in-depth analysis the
CIA team has narrowed the search for zubeida to 14 potential hideouts we really didn't have any intelligence that was good enough to definitively say he's probably in site one or site 10 we just
didn't have that kind of information so we decided we have to hit them all at the same time hitting 14 targets simultaneously was was unusual even at that time when we were literally capturing dozens of foreign fighters in Pakistan that was unprecedented in terms of its scope the CIA was in charge of the strike but they would not act alone for diplomatic and practical reasons Pakistani forces would be the first to enter at each site and since September 11th was an ongoing criminal investigation the FBI was also
on hand to handle the evidence we're all packed into this great room dozens of people and I remember saying at the risk of sounding melodramatic we're gonna have to synchronize our watches like they do in the movies and everybody kind of chuckled but I said I'm serious we have to synchronize our watches the plan called for 14 teams each a mix CIA FBI and Pakistani personnel every action was plotted to the second a team going in even one minute too soon could allow word to reach Zubaydah and torpedo the
entire operation there's so many things that didn't go wrong I mean when when the the takedowns occur you know he could be somewhere else he could be out on a walk there's so many unknowns what do you do when you break down the door and the house is empty and you just blew millions of dollars literally millions of dollars going after somebody and there's nobody there 1:45 a.m. 14 strike teams move into position across faisalabad about 13 of the unit's find their targets as described and await the countdown
the 14th team arrives and realizes something has gone wrong it was an empty field so I said to the pakistani colonel this has to be a mistake because our information is that this is the site and I think our information is good and he said now this happens all the time in Pakistan every plot of land is assigned
a phone number and often wired for service and undeveloped sites thieves commonly splice into the line to hijack an unused number with only minutes to go a Pakistani technician probes a tangl of phone lines and pinpoints the illegal splice he followed it down the pole and literally down the alley and then he
stopped after a few feet he said it's that house right there that was the first time that I really thought we're
gonna get him and it's gonna be in that house right thereat exactly 2 a.m. the 14 units break
into buildings across FaisalAbad many of the sites are private homes strike target number 14 the house at the end of the hijacked phone line on the top floor the strike team encounters a locked door the door was reinforced with steel it's something that we didn't expect and it took about 15 minutes to break it down with the battering ram behind the door men with reason to hide as commandos forced their way into the room one man flees for the roofs trying to escape to the next building the Pakistani forces are ready and waiting I was in there on the scene and and I think that there are some slightly conflicting stories as to what happened my understanding was that he attempted to jump from one roof to another and in the process of jumping was was fired on and it was shot he was shot three times with the same ak-47 apparently he was bleeding pretty heavily and could 
well have bled out and we had somebody who was there on the scene who was looking at him with a photograph and saying my god I think that's him

Abu Zubaydah we knew was going to be a wealth of information there was so much that we didn't understand about the September 11th hijackers and how they got their money but he was very severely
wounded in this shootout and so we had to rush him to face lebot Hospital for the doctors there literally to save his life he was bleeding to death and even after they were able to patch him up the doctor came out and said there's no way this guy's gonna live with Abu Zubaydah's life slipping away JohnKiriakou fears the CIA will lose the men they have worked so hard to find without asking him a single question six months after September 11 a CIA team is scrambling to save the life of a man they believed to be one of Osama bin Laden's top masterminds his name is Abu Zubaydah the agency has spent millions to find him and mounted an unprecedented raid to capture him now with their prisoner rapidly losing blood the CIA may forever lose the chance to learn any secrets he knows he was very severely wounded in this
shootout and so we had to rush him to face lebot hospital for the doctors there literally to save his life he was bleeding to death sube de having played such an important logistically and facilitation role was
quite likely to have information in his head that was material to future terrorist attacks we really needed to talk to him but it wasn't just the September 11th operation that he was in charge of he was doing with gistic sperm cells all around the world and it was those operations that we really wanted to disrupt and the only way to disrupt them would be to get the information from him emergency surgery rescues him from death and zubeida is moved to a secret site the CIA at last has a source who they believe knows terror networks from leadership to foot soldiers the next step interrogation sweeping new directives from the Bush White House thrust zubeida into a shadow world outside America's laws he would be
detained without access to civilian courts habeas corpus or the protections of the Geneva Convention his interrogation would ignite a firestorm of controversy exactly what happened is still hotly debated several published accounts of Zubaydah's detainment each claiming to be the truth disagree on key points one of his interrogators claims zubeida responded readily to straightforward
questioning giving up key information even naming Khalid Sheikh Mohammed as the architect of 9/11 without any leverage from harsh interrogation methods however harsh methods were ultimately used
on that fact nearly everyone agrees in August 2002 a Justice Department memo gave the CIA an unprecedented arsenal of interrogation methods Abu Zubaydah became the test case for the Central Intelligence Agency's first-ever use of simulated drowning a technique used by the Spanish
Inquisition known as waterboarding according to some a single session of waterboarding was the key that unlocked so beta's most important revelations others disagree saying Zubaydah was waterboarded 83 times with little to show for it but misinformation and falseconfessions still another account tells an even more astonishing story that the breakthrough with zubeida came not from
questioning or waterboarding but deception in what is called a false flag operation US Intel officers supposedly tricked zubeida leading him to believe he'd been handed over to the Saudi Arabian government Arab Americans CIA officers posed as Saudi interrogators and threatened him with brutal punishment the plan was that the fear of torture by the Saudis would make zubeida eager to
return to US custody and cooperate to his handlers surprise Zubaydah's reaction was not fear but relief he immediately volunteered a private cell phone number for a member of the Saudi royal family zubeida urged his interrogator to make the call claiming the man on the other end would demand his release the number belonged to Prince Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz nephew to the king of Saudi Arabia zubeida went on to name two other men in the royal family and the chief of the Pakistani Air Force he claimed the four men all knew who he was all had connections to al Qaeda and at least two knew about 911 before the fact the CIA does not volunteer comment on interrogations but despite reports that
zubeida is not a top terrorist the agency maintains he is a key al-qaeda operative the American public is
unlikely to know the full story anytime soon in 2005 facing congressional scrutiny of their detainment policies the CIA destroyed 92 videotapes of interrogations included were the tapes documenting the questioning of Abu Zubaydah what is known are the fates of the men zubeida supposedly named within four months the three Saudi princes were all dead one from a heart attack one from a single car auto accident and the third mysteriously found in the desert having died of thirst the public debate about
the means used to get information from zubeida has not died I can't imagine a CIA officer thinking that the appropriate way to start was with the harshest available interrogation technique it's not the way it works in that critical moment after September the 11th people like Abu Zubaydah capturing them interrogating them became an critically important the issue of harsh interrogation even drove a rift into the
Bush White House the CIA worried the divide could undermine their political support and the agency now says that by 2003 the year after using the technique on Abu Zubaydah they stopped waterboarding altogether the great strength of this country is our optimism and our our democratic principles and so we very much are a country that wants to believe it's been seven and a half years since September the 11th we've won let's move on but it's a vulnerability and it's a vulnerability because we're operating against an enemy who doesn't think in terms of decades they think in terms of millennia Osama bin Laden said before September 11th that he would not rest until the
green flag of Islam flew over the White House and I think we need to take the man at his word so we need to capture him or kill him and his underlings before they can attack us again it's a very very complicated process and there's really only one organization in the world that this capable of doing
that and that's the US intelligence community as we speak right now there are CIA officers engaged in clandestine meetings around the world recruiting agents debriefing agents involved in counter-terrorist operations all around the world we've got to be able to discern that threat we have got to be able to identify the enemy and then engage with great precision and great speed and when and where possible with great stealth I think it's one of those fights that we're going to have to wage like we did
against international communism let's say that goes for nearly a century it's something that we're going to have to remain focused on we can't stop fighting we can't allow ourselves to be distracted and in the end I think we'll
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